🏁 Threw means something was thrown at someone or something. Through usually means to go somewhere, but there are lots of ways to use it, like going through a tunnel, or going through an experience, like a divorce.
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🚦 Threw is the simple past version of the verb to throw, so you’d use it to describe something that’s already happened:
The cricketer threw the ball straight at the wicket.
Karen threw the keys to Lisa.
You can also use it in a more descriptive way:
Work was a challenge she liked, and she threw herself into it.
Through is mainly used after a verb to tell you more about what subject is doing or where they are going:
I went through the tunnel.
Jack and Carly went through a divorce last year.
If a noun follows it (tunnel/divorce in these examples) then it’s being used as what is called a preposition, or a linking word.
However, in this example it’s not being used with a noun which follows it so it’s describing how something is being thought about (badly), so it’s just an adverb.
He hadn’t thought it through.
Sometimes we can even use it as part of an adjective. For example, a train that doesn’t stop at your station is sometimes called a through train.
🎓 There are some other similar words too to be aware of too. You might have seen that in American English, the word through has been changed to a noun with a different spelling for some takeaway services, e.g. a Drive Thru. There is also the adjective thorough, meaning something can be done properly, as in the detective was very thorough. Lastly there is the adverb though, as in Though I tried, I couldn’t wake her up in time for school.
A very detailed look at the differences can be found here: